Higher Education for Employment Generation
The generation of productive and adequately remunerated employment is an
indispensable component in the fight against poverty. While this task presents a
major challenge for all the States and the UTs in India, it is by no means an
insurmountable one. However, success depends on a number of key factors. It
requires first and foremost, a restoration of higher and more stable rates of
economic growth. But this will not be sufficient. It also requires that
supporting policies and programmes be put in place to deliberately stimulate
employment in all sectors of the economy which hold the greatest promise for
employment and income generation on one hand, and on the other, the
implementation of strategies which can, among other things, improve the access
of all groups to education and training and income generating activities in a
The task of employment generation requires concerted action by several
ministries and departments of government both at the national as well as the
state levels. But it is not a task for governments alone. Employers’ and
workers’ organizations, as well as other members of civil society must play an
increasingly active role in the process. The support of the international
community is also critical, not only in terms of resource flows, but in changing
the rules of international economic systems in favour of poor producers and
These suggestions are being discussed with the hope that it will stimulate some
dialogue and serve as a basis for possible action on this very important topic
by bringing out different publications and periodicals both in the print as well
as the electronic media with a view to making everybody aware regarding the
availability of jobs besides the facilities for studies, training and research
in different institutions, schools, colleges and universities.
Strategies for Employment Generation
1. To collect data and information related to the existing publications
including newspapers, journals and periodicals providing information and news
regarding employment opportunities besides facilities regarding academic and
professional training and research in different vocational fields.
2. To bring out daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, bimonthly, quarterly,
six-monthly and yearly newspapers, journals, periodicals and other publications
related to employment and training with a view to generating employment
specially among the weekers sections of the society.
3. To publish books, encyclopaedias, directories and dictionaries on different
topics with a view to generating employment.
4. To connect the association with the labour market mechanisms and patterns to
give into the pattern and intensity of poverty and into the factors
concentrating it among particular groups.
5. To give prominance to labour market policies, as well as those related to
employment, labour institutions, social protection and human resource
development and poverty eradication strategies.
6. To distinguish between poverty due to exclusion from access to jobs and
poverty associated with the nature of employment and the levels of income which
it generates while attempting to analyze the labour market situation in the
Indian Subcontinent and its impact on poverty.
7. To assess the degree to which labour market exclusion is directly linked to
poverty and the extent to which state or community safety nets or family support
systems exist or whether it affects particular members of households (younger
persons, for example) where there is another income source.
8. To place the creation of employment at the centre of national strategies and
policies, with the full participation of employers and trade unions and other
parts of civil society.
9. To help and assist in the formulation of policies to expand work
opportunities and increase productivity in both rural and urban sectors.
10. To provide education and training that enable workers and entrepreneurs to
adapt to changing technologies and economic conditions.
11. To help generate quality jobs, with full respect for the basic rights of
12. To give special priority, in the design of policies, to the problems of
structural, long-term employment and underemployment of youth, women, persons
with disabilities and all other disadvantaged groups and individuals.
13. To empower the women for gender balance in decision-making processes at all
levels and gender analysis in policy development to ensure equal employment
opportunities and wage rates for women and to enhance harmonious and mutually
beneficial partnerships between women and men in sharing family and employment
14. To also empower members of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups through the
provisions of proper and appropriate education and training.
15. To look for a broader recognition and understanding of work and employment
and greater flexibility in working time arrangements for both men and women.
16. To assist in alleviating poverty and unemployment: either by focusing on the
members of economically weaker sections of the society and other groups directly
affected by the economic reform and adjustment policies such as retrenched
workers, or more generally by addressing chronic and structural poverty and
17. To strengthen the social acceptability and the political viability of
adjustment and reform programmes.
18. To help in creating a new approach and culture of social service delivery
based on a flexible institutional mechanism circumventing the bureaucratic
structure and encouraging participatory and decentralized development with the
participation of local groups and associations.
19. To develop strategies to assist the formation and strengthening of
collective action in the informal sector by developing relations with trade
20. To raise awareness on the importance of good working conditions and social
security by extending workers’ education programmes to the informal sector.
21. To assist in improving working conditions of their subcontractors in the
informal sector with a view to enabling them to create more employment
opportunities for trained and skilled persons.
22. To assist informal sector operators to take part in trade fairs.
23. To assist informal sector operators to organize themselves effectively.
24. To integrate issues on occupational safety and health and social security in
programmes to raise productivity.
25. To assist informal sector self-help associations to integrate awareness
raising on occupational safety and health into their activities.
26. To establish innovative market services for the development of adult
workers, by expanding the role of employers and organized employees in the
planning and delivery of services, including training, retraining, job search,
placement, skills identification and counselling.
27. To increase the capacity of the private sector to perform its role in the
training and development of the young men and women to acquire techno-managerial
as well as entrepreneurial skills.
28. To improve the existing employment market information system.
29. To help adult workers to acquire new skills at the technical and supervisory
levels in order to make them eligible for higher level jobs at higher wages in
occupations essential to economic growth or in their own businesses.
30. To reduce the transition time to new jobs for displaced workers.
31. To accelerate the entry of female workers into skilled technician, master
craftsperson or supervisory positions.
32. To establish a permanent private sector mechanism to fund a variety of
workforce development activities and create a forum for workers and employers to
collaborate in implementing human resource development strategies and programmes.
33. To provide skill and interests assessment and career and employment
counselling to determine the training, placement or business development
support, the employable persons need to acquire the job, promotion or suitable
income generating activity.
34. To provide a comprehensive package of services to include brokering and
referral of workers to jobs, on-the-job training, business development support
services and specialized training at the craftsperson, artisan, supervisory or
managerial level and appropriate entrepreneurial training to place workers in
new jobs, better jobs or self-employment opportunity.
35. To promote the concept of establishing learning laboratories which would
provide computer assisted training e.g. literacy, numeracy and workplace basics
such as problem solving, oral communication and planning and organizing work.
36. To establish Employment and Training Market Services Centres to introduce
innovative approaches in human resource development.
37. To establish the principle of equality between men and women as a basis for
employment policy and promoting gender-sensitivity training to eliminate
prejudice against the employment of women.
38. To eliminate gender discrimination, including by taking positive action,
where appropriate, in hiring, wages, access to credit, benefits, promotion,
training, career development, job assignment, working conditions, job security
and social security benefits.
39. To encourage various actors to join forces in designing and carrying out
comprehensive and coordinated programmes that stimulate the resourcefulness of
youth, preparing them for durable employment or self-employment, providing them
with guidance, vocational and managerial training, social skills, work
experience and education in social values.
40. To cause research on the underlying factors which are most important in
differing national contexts in determining the levels of youth unemployment.
41. To evaluate all types of policies and programmes tried in different
five-year plans with a view to designing a foolproof and long-term strategy for
42. To locate the factors which influence the success or failure of specific
policies and programmes relating to employment and training.
43. To prepare a Policy and Programme Manual for policy makers to aim primarily
at national capacity building for the design, implementation and evaluation of
policies and programmes for countering youth unemployment.
44. To help analyse the national background characteristics, financial
constraints, current educational efforts and effects and present conditions of
societal development in different States and UTs of India.
45. To help the Central Government establish appropriate targets for employment
generation and derive suitable strategies for implementing policies and
programmes to meet the needs of the educated unemployed.
46. To establish a Life and Career Advising Centre - a single point of contact
for student counselling on academic, personal and career issues.
47. To create a learning environment all over the country that encourages
students to become actively involved in their own education.
48. To help reduce unemployment in the country by assisting the Central and the
State Governments and public institutions in the initiation of professional and
job oriented courses and by introducing the urban as well as rural
entrepreneurship programmes for self employment.
49. To encourage an employment policy that is free of prejudice and party
politics which promotes new ideas relating to sustainability.
50. To strengthen the voluntary as well as non governmental organisations in
order to make them available for the organisation and implementation of
programmes having a positive, social, economic and educational content with a
view to having more number of job givers than job seekers.
51. To serve as a centre of ideas and experience and dissemination of employment
and training information on national as well as global job markets and its
availabilities, reach, awareness, policy, law, research promotion, and
preparedness in particular.
52. To help the Central and the State Governments in organising formal and non
formal training programmes in attitudinal and behavioural change for bringing
productivity and efficiency with the help of the trained employers and
53. To publicize through the media an international network instances of
successful policies, programmes and demonstrations regarding employment
promotion and bring these success stories to the attention of policy makers.
54. To establish a national network of like minded NGOs with the ability to
publicise the activities related to employment generation.
55. To strengthen international scientific research organisations so that they
can play a larger part in shaping and coordinating the research agenda on
vocationalisation of careers.
56. To work closely with policy research centres focusing on global scale
resource and development issues to bridge the gap between basic research and
policy on employbility.
57. To evaluate the existing curricula of the undergraduate, graduate and
postgraduate level courses and propose necessary changes for making these
programmes fit for helping the alumnis to find self employment opportunities by
acquiring entrepreneurial leadership techniques.
58. To address the universal shortage of trained personnel in new and emerging
job oriented areas through a sharp increase in funds to be sanctioned to
universities and institutions.
59. To advise the younger generation for acquiring appropriate knowledge and
technologies from the aged persons and senior citizens and to popularise their
proven ideas and experiences.
60. To use restructured educational and training programmes to reorient
vocational education for creating jobs in the new and emerging fields.
61. To help initiate training cum production cum rehabilitation centres in the
rural as well as urban areas for the benefit of the younger generation.
62. To create employment generation environment by updating the existing
vocational training programmes in the polytechnics, institutions, colleges and
63. To strengthen with adequate study materials the existing distance learning
programmes for enabling the working persons to strengthen their qualification
and encouraging earning while learning.
64. To prepare instructional texts including audio and video lessons on
employment and training to be distributed through the existing institutions as
well as through the new outfits in the country.
65. To use and popularise the existing and new satellite channels for teaching
and training through the air for the benefit of the citizenry.
66. To aid in organising conferences, seminars, meetings, discussions, debates,
study courses, collection of statistics, exhibitions, shows, tour trips and to
establish different endowments and scholarships for the promotion and
furtherance of the employment generation strategy.
67. To organise employment museums for displaying the available vacancies
besides different types of advertisements in the print and the electronic media.
68. To conduct sponsored as well as non sponsored research programmes with the
support of Central and State Governments and publish such reports and case
69. To arouse in teachers and other educators a full awareness of our
responsibilities in moulding future generations for a peaceful employment and
70. To promote that kind of education that will help each individual from
earliest years to develop full human potential for constructive, peaceful living
in the expanding communities in which one grows; family, neighbourhood, school,
local community, country, in fact, the whole human world.
71. To seek to enable individuals through constant educational and career
improvement to deal with and resolve misunderstanding, personal as well as
social, in the spirit of wisdom, charity and duty.
72. To support design, production and wide spread distribution of educational
materials for the furtherance of social progress, international understanding,
and worldly stability.
73. To make the full use of mass media for the cause of education especially in
the proper communication of controversial views and issues, local and global, so
as to maximize cooperation and conciliation.
74. To make everybody aware regarding the need for national as well as
international integration and cooperation.
75. To invite representatives of different countries including the universities,
NGOs and regulatory bodies for discussing issues like labour, employment,
entrepreneurship and education.
76. To seek support of the educational and scientific organisations for using
their facilities and infrastructure for conducting different programmes related
to clean as well as green jobs.
77. To help design courses on subjects and topics generally not covered by
existing institutions but are of great importance viewing the changes in the
78. To continue to be open in ideas, methods, systems, places with no cloisters.
79. To help people through appropriate training to lead a way of life that can
be sustained by our Mother Earth.
80. To justify the creation of organisations by uniting all the professionals of
the country in order to influence the power structure through their function as
counselling centres, and by placing them, whenever possible, in areas of
conflict for equalizing the flow of knowledge, for reducing aggression and for
generating attitudes of fraternization.
81. To suggest to the national and international leaders alternative approaches
to the solution of problems relating to health, education, pollution,
unemployment and peacelessness.
82. To encourage the establishment of institutions for learning that serves the
spirit of employment generation and also by stimulating existing colleges and
universities to implement courses of study related to virtual education for
employment opportunities in the cyber related fields.
83. To cooperate with authorities at various levels in implementing the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reminding the employers and the
employees regarding their human rights as well as human duties.
84. To collaborate in the work of existing and functional organizations that
have stated goals and purposes similar.
85. To propose to other developmental associations, programmes on peace problems
that are flexible in nature and capable of being adopted and modified according
to cultural background, environment, and changing needs of people.
86. To update educational means for the reciprocal dissemination of culture and
the elimination of illiteracy.
87. To disseminate information in the form of advertisements and/or articles
regarding selection and recruitment in public as well as private sector
organisations in the publications to be brought out from time to time.
88. To conduct periodical analaysis of employment and unemployment data at both
State level and all India level and projections of labour force, workforce, and
unemployment in the country.
89. To suggest strategies and programmes for creating gainful employment
opportunities and to look into sectoral issues and policies having a bearing on
90. To identify gaps and to suggest necessary approach / strategies and the need
based policies and programmes in the fields of occupational safety and health,
skill development, social security, employment planning and policy.
91. To help provide opportunities for individuals seeking a green or
ecologically responsible career available in many diverse catagories on the
international, national, state and local levels; in private, public, and
non-profit sectors; within different fields; and in different job functions.
92. To introduce responsible business practices fostering a competitive edge
through efficiency in production, minimum generation of waste, and a more
productive and healthy work force.
93. To advise the Government of India and the State Governments to constitute
People's Commission on Employment Generation with a view to having immediate
solution regarding unemployment as well as unemploybility.
94. To collaborate, affiliate and federate with the Central and the State
Governments, agencies and bodies for implementing the projects of employment
95. To raise and borrow money for the purpose of the promoting employment
generation in such a manner as may be decided from time to time and to prescribe
the membership fees, charges, grants-in-aid etc.
96. To purchase, take on lease or exchange, hire or otherwise acquire
properties, movable or immovable and rights and privileges all over the world,
which may be deemed necessary and to sell, lease, mortgage, dispose or otherwise
deal with all or any part of the property.
97. To open branches, chapters and constitutent centres in different parts of
the country and get them registered with appropriate authorities if needed and
felt conducive for the attainment of the aims and objects with a view to
98. To invest the money not immediately required in such securities and in such
manner as may be decided from time to time, the money especially collected
through subscriptions, advertisements, sponsorship, fees, gifts, endowments,
donations, grants etc.
99. To finally provide information, knowledge, wisdom, and education that
prepares every body for leadership and social responsibility enabling to think
and communicate effectively and to develop a global awareness and sensitivity
for a better global understanding, world peace and unity.
100. And to generally do all that is incidental and conducive to the attainment
of the objects relating to employment.